Articles

"Kurdish Cinema is
unknown to the world",
Babak Amini

Inteview with Huseyin
Karabey, director of "My
Marlon and Brando"

Film feast

Half Moon Takes
Cynical Approach
Toward Turkey

Aristotle's seven golden
rules of story telling by
Jalal Jonroy

An interview with
Kurdish director
Hisham Zaman on
Bawke

5th Kurdish Film
Festival in London

Self-distribution key to
getting 'David & Layla' in
theater

Q & A with Bahman
Ghboadi for Passion of
Cinema

Gutsy Jewish-Kurdish
romance goes after
more than laughs

Bahman Ghobadi
discusses his new film:
Half Moon

"I have problems with
the borders"

My big, fat, Jewish-
Kurdish wedding?

David & Layla: A love
story

Reading a screenplay

Bahman Ghobadi: The
poetics of politics

Hiner Saleem's
portrayal of Kurds

Why write?

Waiting for the rain, a
Kurdish  love story

Silence tells much more
than words

The first film about
Kurds: Zere 80 years old

Half Moon, a review in
Hollywod Reporter




“Turtles Can Fly” And The Image Of Perpetrators, Victims And Heroes (Saviors)

KurdishCinema - February 20 2009

by Saniye KARAKAS*

I-INTRODUCTION

Turtles Can Fly is the third feature film of
Bahman Ghobadi, a Kurdish director from
Iran. The movie portrays exactly the
stereotypical image of Kurds and their
suffering and resilience, particularly the
plight of children on the border of Turkey
and Iraq.  It is the first film made after the
fall of Saddam.

The main character in the film is “Satellite”,
a 13 –year-old who sets up satellite dishes
for villagers, thus gaining his nickname.
Hengeow, an armless teenager who unscrews land mines with his teeth, Agrin, his sister
who was raped by Saddam’s soldiers, and her blind child Riga, the child of that rape, are
from Halabja, where Saddam carried out an attack with chemical weapons. Pesheow, the
best friend of Satellite, who has one non-functional leg, is another victim of exploding
mines. It's just days before the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq and the village leaders cannot get
any news of developments. They need a satellite dish. Satellite is pressed into making a
deal. There are enough landmines, collected by the children, to be traded or sold to an
arms dealer in exchange for a dish. The U.N. representative in the village also pays the
children for recovered landmines, which would not be re-armed, but the arms dealer pays
more. (1) Turtles Can Fly is that story. It is fiction, but the children who act in it are
portraying their own lives. The boy with no arms really has swept minefields for a living.
“They have experienced it," says Ghobadi. "You can't believe it, but there are more than
30,000 kids like him in Iraq. Often they cannot cope. He was one of the few who somehow
had the fighting instinct in him." (2)

There is no doubt that Turtles Can Fly is a human rights film as it deals with human rights
violations against Kurds in Iraq in general and children’s rights, land mines and refugee
issues in particular. It is also an anti-war movie that criticizes American policy regarding its
role in causing war in the name of bringing peace to the world. The narrative of the film is
based on the real situation of the Kurds and it is told to us through the actual victims and
their daily life in a very realistic manner that makes the film authentic.

The aim of this essay is to analyze Turtles Can Fly and to illustrate the image of
perpetrators, victims and saviors (heroes) to see whether they are completely separate as
they are in human rights discourse. In the second chapter the background of the movie will
be explained with historical information and related images from the film to provide basic
information and to show why it is a human rights film. In the third chapter the portrayal of
victims, perpetrators and saviors in the film will be explained with reference to human
rights discourse. At the same time the concept of heroes and perpetrators will be
questioned as to whether they are distinct or should be referred to in the same group.

II- THE BACKROUND OF “TURTLES CAN FLY”

a-
Historical Overview  

The Kurds are usually described as the largest ethnic group without a state in the world.
There is no official information regarding the total population but it is estimated to be
approximately 30 million. The highest population of Kurds lives in Turkey with an
estimated number of 15 million. However, they constitute the highest proportion (25% of
the population) in Iraq with a total of 4-5 million. There are around 7 million in Iran and over
1 million in Syria.

Kurdistan, used as a geographical term indicating where Kurds live, is divided among
four countries: Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria. Historically, the Kurds have enjoyed a
considerable degree of semi-autonomy under the various regional powers seeking to
exercise territorial control over the lands inhabited by Kurdish tribes. (3)   Kurds had the
first opportunity to establish their own state after World War I with the collapse of the
Ottoman Empire. The Treaty of Sevres (4) signed by the allies and the Ottoman Empire
included the possibility of a Kurdish state subject to the agreement of the League of
Nations. However, the Treaty of Sevres was never ratified and implemented. The treaty
was a humiliation for Turkey, which faced chaos and deprivation in the aftermath of war.
Mustafa Kemal, the founder of the Turkish Republic, repudiated the treaty’s provisions and
waged a war of national independence. After this conflict, the adversaries negotiated a
new accord to settle issues of sovereignty, claims, rights and the like. Kurdish leaders
petitioned the League of Nations and Britain for recognition of Kurdish autonomy during
negotiations on the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne. (5) However, this instrument completely
ignored the claims of the Kurds to any form of independent status and carved up
Kurdistan, only recognizing the protection of the rights of religious minorities. (6) The
Kurds subsequently found themselves parceled up between four countries.

Since then the Kurds in Iraq have always rejected Arab administration and struggled for
their freedom throughout the 20th Century. The region of Iraqi Kurdistan has witnessed
several revolts and faced cruel repression like other parts of Kurdistan, which have also
been left underdeveloped, despite having rich oil resources.

The themes of dividing borders and the underdevelopment of Kurdistan are the significant
narratives in Bahman Ghobadi’s films. In his two previous feature films “Marooned in Iraq”
and “A Time for Drunken Horses” the issue of borders constitutes the background of his
movies as events take place on both sides of the Iraq-Iran border. In these two films the
main characters have to pass from one side of the border to the other, indicating the
negative effect of borders on Kurdish people.

In “Turtles Can Fly” the theme of borders also represents the core issue and the movie is
set in a Kurdish refugee camp on the border between Turkey and Iraq.  In this movie two
important scenes can be seen as a reference to the negative influence of borders on
Kurdish people. At the beginning of the film the conversation between Satellite and Isma’il,
a village elder, emphasizes the separation of people along with their country. The villagers
are expecting the US invasion but they cannot get any news about the upcoming war. They
need a satellite dish but it is difficult to afford one. Satellite asks them why they don’t buy
one as there are seventy families in the village.  

Isma’il replies: But we are only thirty families. How many times should I tell you?
Satellite asks: What about the houses on that side?
Isma’il: Don’t you know they are in Turkey. They won’t pay for it, because they say we are
strangers.

Satellite: How come, Isma’il?  Isn’t your wife from that village? Isn’t she from there? And
now they are strangers?

Isma’il: They made us into strangers, aliens.

In another scene Pesheow, Satellite’s best friend who has one leg disabled because of
land mines, tries to annoy a Turkish soldier at the border with his disabled leg in order to
make 3-year-old Riga laugh. Furthermore, the barbed-wire barrier is seen in several
scenes as another metaphor that refers to the division of borders. All these metaphors or
scenes referring to borders in Bahman Ghobadi’s films might be seen as a reference to
the aspiration of Kurds to have their own state, or their hunger for freedom as well as the
negative effect of division on their lives.

b-
Kurds Under the Saddam Regime and the Al-Anfal Campaign

The Arap Socialist Baath party came into power after the 1968 coup and Iraq was ruled by
the Baath regime from 1968 to 2003.  Saddam Hussein seized power in 1979 and Iraq
became a totalitarian country under his dictatorship until he was overthrown in 2003.

The linguistic and cultural rights of the Kurds as a group were recognized from the
foundation of the state of Iraq and were reaffirmed in the 1958 Constitution.

An autonomy law was accepted in 1974 describing the autonomous region as an integral
administrative unit with juridical personality and autonomy within the republic of Iraq...
Kurdish and Arabic were to be the official languages of education. The region was to have
its own budget and financial resources derived from local taxation. (7) However, this did
not protect Kurds from Saddam’s brutal repression. During the ethnic cleansing strategy
pursued under his totalitarian regime thousands of Kurds were killed, deported from their
homes and their lands and properties were destroyed.

In the Anfal Campaign this extermination policy against the Kurds reached its peak.  Anfal--
"the Spoils"--is the name of the eighth sura of the Koran. It is also the name given by the
Iraqis to a series of military actions which lasted from February 23 until September 6,
1988. Anfal was also the most vivid expression of the "special powers" granted to Ali
Hassan al-Majid, a cousin of President Saddam Hussein and secretary general of the
Northern Bureau of Iraq's Ba'ath Arab Socialist Party. From March 29, 1987 until April 23,
1989, al-Majid was granted power that was equivalent, in Northern Iraq, to that of the
President himself, with authority over all agencies of the state. Al-Majid, who is known to
this day to Kurds as "Ali Anfal" or "Ali Chemical," was the overlord of the Kurdish genocide.
(8)

The campaign included gross violations of human rights including using widespread
chemical weapons. Halabja became the target of conventional and chemical bomb
attacks over three days in March of 1988. During those three days, the town and the
surrounding district were unmercifully attacked with bombs, artillery fire, and chemicals.
The chemical weapons were the most destructive of life. The chemicals used included
mustard gas and the nerve agents sarin, tabun, and VX. At least 5,000 people died
immediately as a result of the chemical attack and it is estimated that up to 12,000 people
in all died during the course of those three days. (9)

In Turtles Can Fly Ghobadi portrays the violations towards Kurds and the tragedy of
Kurdish genocide through the narratives of the main characters Agrin, Hengeow and his
little nephew, Riga. They are from Halabja where Saddam Hussein used chemical gas
against Kurds. Agrin was raped by Iraqi soldiers and gave birth to a blind child (Riga).
Through flashback, viewers see Agrin suffer from vivid memories of war (post-traumatic
stress disorder) where/when Iraqi soldiers raped her in a pond. Riga may or may not be
her child, but Riga (a child created through rape) symbolizes the memory of her horrifying
experience. (10) The metaphor of rape also refers to the occupation of Kurdistan as the
director states in his interview “My country, Kurdistan, which lies over Iran, Iraq, Syria and
Turkey, has been raped by many countries like the girl in the film.” (11) Moreover, the
blindness of Riga symbolizes the horrific and ongoing effect of chemical weapons.  

There are several scenes that also illustrate the devastation of the region and the
economic and social plight caused by war and Saddam’s policy. They have no water,
electricity or school and children are orphaned and live in tents at a refugee camp. At the
beginning of the film Isma’il express this reality as “look what Saddam has done to us, we
have no water, no electricity, no homes and no schools, to hell with Saddam and his
clique!”

c-The Humanitarian Invasion of Iraq

Humanitarian intervention is the threat or use of force across state borders by a state (or
group of states) aimed at preventing or ending widespread and grave violations of the
fundamental human rights of individuals other than its own citizens, without the
permission of the state within whose territory  force is applied. (12)

The United States has undertaken a pioneer role in this mission and has intervened in
several countries, especially after the ending of the Cold War.  After the 11 September
2001 terrorist attacks on the United States, George W. Bush’s administration expressed a
strong desire to overthrow the Saddam regime. Several reasons were given for this,
although particular emphasis was placed on Iraq being suspected of having weapons of
mass destruction and ties to international terrorist groups. The Bush administration also
stressed the Iraqi government’s brutal repression of its citizens and indicated that if
Saddam were overthrown a new, democratic Iraqi government would be created. The
possibility of democratic political change in Iraq. (13) On this basis the United State and its
coalition intervened in Iraq on March 20, 2003.  

In Turtles Can Fly the US-led coalition intervention constitutes the core event and all events
take place just a few days before the invasion.  Whatever the legitimacy of intervention or
whether it conforms to international law, Ghobadi focuses on people’s expectancy about
the arrival of the US troops. Without taking sides or opposing invasion, he reflects western
invasion from the aspect of indigenous people who had to live with Saddam’s brutality: the
actual victims. The village elders in the movie desperately seek a satellite dish in order to
get news about the American attack on Iraq. They believe that this attack will save them
from Saddam and lead to their liberation.

The movie starts with the hopeless fluster of village elders while installing the antenna.
These following dialogues show their eagerness regarding the US invasion:

Anonymous boy: Pesheow, tell my dad to turn the antenna to the right!        

Pesheow: “Isma’il, to the right, the right! Your son says move it to the right”   
   
Anonymous boy : “Pesheow, tell my dad to turn it to the left!

Pesheow : “AIi, to the left, to the left, left!”                  

A voice: “There is no picture”

In another scene the armless boy Hengeow makes a prediction about the arrival of the
Americans. Satellite makes an announcement to the village, telling them to climb the hill.
While all the villagers wait on the top of the hill to avoid any possible gas attack Satellite
asks Hengeow if his prediction is true. Afterward he hears the sound of American
helicopters and he says:

Satellite : “I hear something, I swear I do, That’s the sound of them ”

Pesheow : “Of what?”

Satellite: “Of our American passports dropping. We are this close”

These pictures points out their strong belief and optimism about salvation and their
impatient waiting for their freedom.

III-THE MAIN PARADOX: CREATING AND SAVING VICTIMS

a-
Victims

The idea of human rights is based on the metaphor of victim. Without the victim there is no
savage or savior, and the entire human rights enterprise collapses. (14) The victim is
someone whose dignity and worth has been violated. Powerless, helpless and innocent,
her basic nature and needs have been denied. But there is more: victims are part of an
indistinct mass or horde of despairing, dispirited people. They are faceless and
nameless, the massacred Tutsis, the trafficked refugees, the gassed Kurds, the raped
Bosnians. (15)

In “Turtles Can Fly” the director makes sure that the faceless and nameless victims
(Kurds) actually go through realistic characterization. Although Kurds are portrayed as
victims in Turtles Can Fly children are particularly centralized as victims through the
devastating effect of war and land mines showing that children are the most vulnerable
victims of war. He  express this as: “What was important to me was to show the human
reality and the children killed, injured or suffering from war whether in Kurdistan, Iraq or
any country in the Middle East. The war in Iraq was the most recent one, and that's what
made me want to go there and make a film to object to the situation. But the border, the
country, the places weren't so important.”  (16) Ghobadi deals with a number of issues in
Turtles Can Fly, but he concentrates on children and their harsh living conditions with land
mines and weapons.  The narrative is told through the eyes of children particularly
Satellite, who is the village’s main source of electronics. Satellite has also become a
leader of the orphan children who live in the refugee camp, most of them missing arms
and legs due to land mines and bombings. However, they still dig up unexploded
landmines and sell them to the arms dealers in order to survive.

b-
Perpetrators

Human Rights law frames the state as it is the primary target. Although voluntarily entered
into, human rights treaties are binding on the state. The state is both the guarantor and
subject of human rights. Underlying the development of human rights is the premise that
the state is a predator that must be contained. Otherwise it will devour and imperil human
freedom. From this conventional international human rights perspective, the state is the
classic savage. (17)

From this perspective, states fit the image of the perpetrator in Turtles Can Fly.  Taking the
issue of borders Turkey, Iraq, Iran and Syria are responsible for the conditions of the
Kurdish people and for the violations against them. The metaphor of land mines and
children and the plight of Kurds make the Iraqi state the main perpetrator due to Saddam’s
policy of laying mines in the region. This can be understood from the general context of the
film but also at the very beginning of the film Ismail states who is mainly responsible
directly  by saying  “Look what Saddam has done to us, we have no water, no electricity, no
homes and no schools, to hell with Saddam and his clique!”

c-
Saviors (Heroes)

As western values are at the core of human rights ideas, its institutions and Western
states or Western-led institutions have undertaken the main task of protecting human
rights in the world. As Makau Mutua states: “The UN represents as the official guardians of
the human rights corpus, the second powerful tier of saviors is constituted by Western
States and western or western-controlled  institutions, including, recently, the World Bank,
which is not primarily concerned with human rights”. (18)

The human rights movement has come to be identified openly with the United States and
the domination of the globe exercised by European powers for the last several centuries
has been assumed by the United States. The United States is now the major determinant
of “international peace and security” and the spokesperson for the welfare of humanity. (19)

The United States has been using human rights, freedom and democracy as justification
to strengthen its political, economic and military power thus playing the main role in
military or humanitarian intervention all over the world. The United States has over 700
bases in 130 countries. As of April 2007, 146,000 US troops were actively serving in Iraq,
and thousands of Special Forces were fighting in the "war on terrorism" in Afghanistan,
Pakistan, North Africa and other regions. Back at home, the US government openly
threatens Syria and Iran while covertly supporting coups, protests and uprisings in other
countries, such as Venezuela and Kyrgyzstan. Washington defends its military expansion
and interventions in the name of fighting terrorism and spreading democracy. (20)

This rescuer mission of the US and/or Western States is very well designated in Turtles
Can Fly. As predicted by Hengeow, American helicopters arrive finally and drop leaflets,
read out through Satellite’s voice saying: “With our arrival, your suffering, injustice and
misery will end. We are your best friends and brothers. We are here in your country and we
bring you good news. Those who are with us are our friends. Those who are against us
are our enemies. We have brought you paradise. Leave your country in our hands and we
will look after you”. As can be seen the overthrow of Saddam Hussein is justified by ending
the suffering of Iraqi people and bringing them freedom and democracy which is based on
western liberal democracy.

d-
Heroes or Perpetrators?

In the predominant Western discourse, the "Human Rights of the Third World suffering
victims" effectively means the right of the Western powers themselves to intervene -
politically, economically, culturally, militarily - in the Third World countries of their choice on
behalf of the defense of Human Rights. The reference to Lacan's formula of
communication (in which the sender gets back from the receiver-addressee his own
message in its inverted, i.e. true, form) is here up to the point: in the reigning discourse of
humanitarian interventionism, the developed West is effectively getting back from the
victimized Third World its own message in its true form. (21)

The image of perpetrator, victim and savior seems to comply with Western human rights
discourse in Turtles Can Fly.  Iraqi people are victims suffering from Saddam’s cruelty and
repression as the US and its coalition arrives in Iraq as heroes to make the country a
paradise.  However, there are different metaphors in the film that leave questions in our
mind as to whether the purpose is really to end the suffering of the Iraqi people. The
director does not believe that the American invasion will bring peace and prosperity to Iraq
and Kurdish people. He uses different symbols to show that America will not turn Iraq into
a paradise, but will make it out of control instead. In the final scene, although they are
waiting eagerly for the Americans, when they arrive Pesheow asks Satellite : “Look, didn’t
want to see the Americans” while Satellite turns his back and walks in the opposite
direction as the American soldiers pass by. American heroism, initially championed by
Satellite, doesn't save anyone in the end. Rarely does a film feel this urgent, like a
message in a bottle accidentally washed ashore. Ghobadi dares to tell the story of a
corner of the planet in which there is no resolution, no matter how hard those half a world
away try to impose a happy ending. (22)

With ultimate disillusionment in the final scene the director questions the heroism of the
US and its responsibility for the Iraqi people’s victimization. Saddam Hussein had been
ruling Iraq for thirty years and the US and other Western countries did not seem to have
any problems with Saddam Hussein’s human rights record. His dictatorship had been
marked by extreme cruelty and repression against all his opponents. He waged a long
and costly war against neighboring Iran (1980-88), backed by arms and aid from the US-
UK, as well as France, Russia, Germany and others. No one in Washington complained
about his nuclear, biological and chemical weapons programs in the 1980s, while he was
viewed as a useful ally against the Iranian “threat.” Rather, Washington gave him military
advisors, satellite intelligence and even targeting for his chemical weapons attacks
against Iranian forces. But Saddam provoked Washington’s ire when he invaded Kuwait in
August 1990, leading to UN sanctions and then an UN-approved military action, led by the
United States. Since then the former favorite Saddam has been pictured by Washington as
one of the world’s most dangerous and violent criminals. (23)  In other words it can be
said that Saddam was created like Frankenstein by the US or western countries due to
their interests for the time being. Therefore the image of the US is not very clear as to
whether it is hero or perpetrator due to indirect responsibility by supporting Saddam
Hussein.  In his interview the director of the film expresses this point of view and states:
“One of the countries that has always made promises to the Kurds in order to advance its
own interests is America. Now Americans think, 'Oh yes, there's a Kurdistan. Oh yes, there
was Halabja.' That happened 15 years ago. I'm not a political person and I don't make
political films. But politics has become impregnated in all this, because Kurdistan is full of
death and war.”  (24)

The land mines and children is another metaphor used by Ghobadi to illustrate this
paradox. On the one hand land mines were provided by the US and Western countries to
be laid in the region at the time of Saddam, but on the other hand they are disarmed by
children who lost their limbs because of these land mines. These disarmed landmines
are sold to the Western States and they are processed and laid again. Namely, the image
of the US and Western states represents both creating victims by providing land mines
and saving victims by buying disarmed land mines.

This paradox is very well expressed in Zizek’s words when he talks about NATO
intervention in Kosovo. He states: “But the deeper paradox involved here resides in the
ideology of victimization. While NATO intervened in order to protect the Kosovo victims, it at
the same time, I claim, took care that they will remain victims, not an active political-military
force capable of defending itself. The strategy of NATO was thus perverse in the precise
Freudian sense of the term. NATO itself was co-responsible for the calamity against which
it offered itself as a remedy, like the mad governess from my favorite Patricia High- smith
short story, "Heroine," who sets the family house on fire in order to be able to prove her
devotion to the family by bravely saving the children from the raging fire. (25)

IV- CONCLUSION

Turtles Can Fly is the best film that demonstrates the reality of wartime in Iraq and its
effects on Iraqi people by using harsh realistic images. It reflects the real life of people with
emphasis particularly on children and their struggle to survive. The main message of the
film is that whatever world politics is, and whatever the reason for the political agenda, in
any war children are the most vulnerable. Although according to most reviews the film is
neither a pro nor anti-American movie, I think it is an anti-American and anti-war movie that
questions American heroism by showing that its policy will not bring peace to the world as
it has been mainly responsible for this situation. In the final scene the prediction of
Hengeow that “something else will happen in the area in 275 days” gives us this
message clearly.

*  This is an assingment wrote by the author for; LLM Human Rights Law / Birkbeck,
University of London / 2006-2007

Notes

1- Film Journal by Maria Garcia, See <http://www.mijfilm.com/article.php?a=482&lang=1>

2-  Telegraph Newspaper Online, See <http://www.mijfilm.com/article.php?a=493&lang=1>

3 - Yildiz Kerim, “The Kurds in Iraq, The Past, Present and the Future”, London, 2004, p. 10

4- The Sevres Treaty signed after I World War between Allied Powers and representative  
of  the Government of Ottoman Turkey in August 10, 1920

5- The Treaty of Lausanne signed

6- Yildiz Kerim, “The Kurds in Iraq, The Past, Present and the Future”, London, 2004, p. 12

7- Ibid. p.20

8- Human Rights Watch Report : “The Anfal Campaign against the Kurd”, 1993. See <http:
//hrw.org/reports/1993/iraqanfal/ANFALINT.htm>, 25.04.2007

9- See < http://www.kdp.pp.se/old/chemical.html>

10- Nettnin Sonia, “Film Review and Analysis: Turtles Can Fly”, 2004, See  http://www.
scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0410/S00295.htm, 25.04.2007

11- See http://news.sawf.org/Entertainment/2970.aspx, 25.04.2007

12- Holzgrefe J.L and Keohane Robert O. “Humanitarian Intervention, Ethical, Legal and
Political Dilemmas”,  UK, 2003, p. 18

13- See < http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199289783/01student/cases/us_invasion.
pdf>, 25.04.2007

14- Mutua Makau, “Savages, Victims, and Saviours: The Metaphor of Human Rights”,
Harvard International Law Journal, Volume 42, Number 1, Winter 2001 Quoted in U.N.
CHARTER, pmbl

15- Douzinas Costas, “Human Rights and Empire, The Political Philosophy of
Cosmopolitanism”,  UK, 2007, p.69

16- See http://www.mijfilm.com/article.php?a=524&lang=1

17- Mutua Makau, “Savages, Victims, and Saviours: The Metaphor of Human Rights”,
Harvard International Law Journal, Volume 42, Number 1, Winter 2001

18- Ibid.

19- Ibid.

20- See <http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/generalindex.htm>, 27,04.2007

21- Zizek Slavoj, “The Obscenity of Human Rights:Violence as Symptom”. See <http://www.
lacan.com/zizviol.htm>

22- Koresky Michael, “Message in a Bottle: Bahman Ghobadi's "Turtles Can Fly". See <
http://www.indiewire.com/movies/movies_050215turtle.html>

23- “Saddam’s Regime and What Might Follow”, Global Policy Forum, See <http://www.
globalpolicy.org/security/issues/iraq/saddamindex.htm>

24- “Interview with Bahman Ghobadi by Henry Sheehan”. See http://www.mijfilm.
com/article.php?a=517&lang=1

25- Zizek Slavoj, “Human Rights and Its Discondents”, Bard College, 15 November 1999


Bibliography

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Costas Douzinas, “Human Rights and Empire, The Political Philosophy of
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J.L Holzgrefe and Robert O. Keohane “Humanitarian Intervention, Ethical, Legal and
Political Dilemmas”, UK, 2003

Kerim Yildiz, “The Kurds in Iraq, The Past, Present and the Future”, London, 2004


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Koresky Michael, “Message in a Bottle: Bahman Ghobadi's "Turtles Can Fly". Available at <
http://www.indiewire.com/movies/movies_050215turtle.html

Makau Mutua, “Savages, Victims, and Saviours: The Metaphor of Human Rights”, Harvard
International Law Journal, Volume 42, Number 1, Winter 2001

Nettnin Sonia, “Film Review and Analysis: Turtles Can Fly”, 2004, Available at  http://www.
scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0410/S00295.htm, 25.04.2007

Saddam’s Regime and What Might Follow”, Global Policy Forum, See <http://www.
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Telegraph Newspaper Online, Available at <http://www.mijfilm.com/article.php?
a=493&lang=1

Zizek Slavoj, “Human Rights and Its Discontents”, Bard College

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OTHER ELECTRONIC SOURCES

http://www.kdp.pp.se/old/chemical.html>

http://news.sawf.org/Entertainment/2970.aspx,

http://www.oup.com/uk/orc/bin/9780199289783/01student/cases/us_invasion.pdf>,

http://www.mijfilm.com/article.php?a=524&lang=1

http://www.globalpolicy.org/empire/intervention/generalindex.htm